Many ask : “I am not recognized in my PMO role. What should I do?”
I went through the same issue several times. Here are 7 actions that made me overcome such situations.
1-Do not fear to fail. Learn from failures. Yet, avoid ruin, and beware of success.
2-Be thoroughly stakeholder-centric. Identify each of your stakeholders and recognize their personal needs and their business expectations. Do your best to answer them.
3-Find and stay in the environment of great leaders. But, leave as soon as possible mediocre ones. Never get into a “bed of Procrustes” (a symbol of conformism and standardization).
4-Do not hide behind your computer. Bring around you numerous talents of all sorts. Animate their community.
5-Get the most possible great opportunities to grow through a variety of exposures (sizes, domains, regions, complexity…)
6-Stay ahead of the wave. The universe is accelerating. Go beyond the technical, business, and leadership capabilities by studying complexity sciences, quirky strategies, and human dynamics.
7-Never give up. Learn and practice all sorts of methods and tools. Understand what works best where. Search for advice from others. And put your skin in the game.
To your continued success
Here are three quirky books PMOs and Project Managers may want to read for Christmas (and maybe offer to their colleagues). I read them several times during 2018 and learned very useful knowledge.
Skin In The Game, by Nassim N. Taleb, has been one of my preferred book this year. After The Black Swan and Antifragile (among my 2017 top-12), I enjoyed discovering Skin in the Game and its examples ranging from Hammurabi to Seneca, Antaeus the Giant to Donald Trump. “Nassim Nicholas Taleb shows how the willingness to accept one’s own risks is an essential attribute of heroes, saints, and flourishing people in all walks of life”.
I discovered Barabasi’s Network Science years ago. The Formula helped me understand why “too often, accomplishment does not equal success. We did the work but didn’t get the promotion; we played hard but weren’t recognized; we had the idea but didn’t get the credit”. Recognizing this striking disconnect, Barabasi, along with a team of some of the most advanced data-crunching systems on the planet, dedicated themselves to uncovering that ever-elusive link between performance and success.
Gut Feelings, The Intelligence Of The Unconscious, is a wonderful eye-opener for whoever still relies mainly on reason for decision-making. Reflection and reason are overrated, according to renowned psychologist Gerd Gigerenzer. Much better qualified to help us make decisions is the cognitive, emotional, and social repertoire we call intuition. This book comforted me in my conviction that intuition and simple rules of thumb often work better than more complex systems.
Remember George R.R. Martin’s quote from The Game of Thrones:
“A mind needs books like a sword needs a whetstone, if it is to keep its edge. That is why I read so much.”
So, I enjoyed several other books this year that you may like as well. Among these books are: Hooked, How To Build Habit-Forming Products, by Nir Eyal, The Dao Of Capital, Austrian Investing in a Distorted World, by M. Spitznagel, The Standard For Portfolio Management, by the Project Management Institute, Qu’est-ce qu’un chef? by General Pierre de Villiers, The Complete Essays, by Michel de Montaigne, On The Happy Life, by Seneca, and… The High-Impact PMO, the book I published initially in Oct. 2017, that is now in its 3d edition, and that generated so many wonderful conversations with its readers.
The image on top of this post is from Pixabay. The quote is from Roald Dahl. Roald Dahl (1916 – 1990) was a British novelist, short story writer, poet, and screenwriter. His books have sold more than 250 million copies worldwide. His books champion the kindhearted and feature an underlying warm sentiment. Dahl’s works for children include James and the Giant Peach, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, and Matilda among many others.
1. Alice and the Red Queen
Did you ever read Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland? An English mathematician, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, under the pseudonym of Lewis Carroll, wrote this novel in 1865. What may be less known is that soon after this, Lewis Carroll wrote a sequel to Alice in Wonderland. This sequel is a novel titled Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There. Alice crosses a mirror and enters an alternative world. There she meets a White Queen and a Red Queen. Alice grabs the Red Queen, believing her to be responsible for all the day’s nonsense she finds in this world.
At some point, the Red Queen tells Alice:
Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that!
When you look at your own environment, what do you see? Do not things seem to accelerate ceaselessly? I am sure you also find that our world is without respite, accelerating as if time is becoming shorter and shorter.
2. The Ceaseless Race
When I was a young boy, getting a TV set was a hot business. While radio took around 40 years to achieve 50 million listeners, TV only required 20 years to enter in 50 million homes. Nowadays, Facebook only required around 2 years to get 50 million subscribers. And Facebook counts now around 2 billion active users every month while Pokemon Go got 50 million players in less than 20 days.
Today, the volume of data memorized or shared worldwide is growing at a pace never seen before. We face an impossible challenge due to this huge growth of data produced and accessible. According to the consulting firm BCG, 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are generated every day. A single New York Times release contains today more information than what your grandfather would have accessed during his entire life a century ago. Wikipedia, launched in 2001, counts more than 40 million articles in more than 250 different languages, immensely more than for example the famous Encyclopedia Britannica.
3. Why Are We Running Twice as Fast?
The French physicist and astronomer François Roddier gives us some clarification in his book The Thermodynamics of Evolution:
“The universe incessantly strives to maximize the speed with which energy dissipates. That this principle also applies to human evolution should therefore not surprise us.”
In 1988, the American scientist Rod Swenson recognized the Law of Maximum Entropy Production (LMEP or MEP) that states
“The world will select the path or assemblage of paths out of available paths that minimizes the potential or maximizes the entropy at the fastest rate given the constraints.”
What does it mean? Swenson and Turvey provided the following example that clarifies how the law works:
“This is the example of a warm mountain cabin in cold snow-covered woods with the fire that provided the heat having burned out. Under these circumstances there is a temperature gradient between the warm cabin and cold woods. The second law [of thermodynamics] tells us that over time the gradient or potential will be dissipated through walls or cracks around the windows and door until the cabin is as cold as the outside and the system is in equilibrium. We know empirically though that if we open a window or a door a portion of the heat will now rush out the door or window and not just through the walls or cracks. In short whenever we remove a constraint to the flow (such as a closed window) the cabin/environment system will exploit the new and faster pathway thereby increasing the rate the potential is minimized.”
4. Speed Is the Result of a Positive Feedback Loop
The universe follows this optimization algorithm supported by a positive feedback loop. It constantly thrives to maximize the dissipation of its energy or the entropy production rate. It does this by forming ever more complex structures. This is what the Nobel Prize of chemistry Ilya Prigogine explains:
“The universe evolves by forming physical structures capable of dissipating ever more efficiently energy. Stars, planets, plants, animals, and humans form such a series of structures.”
Open Systems have a five-step thermodynamic loop while looking for maximizing the speed with which they dissipate their energy or their information.
Human organizations, especially, are dissipative structures that are thermodynamically open systems operating out of, and often far from, thermodynamic equilibrium in an environment with which they exchange energy, information, and matter.
The figure explains the positive feedback loop driving the course of the evolution.
5. Social Organizations Self-Organize
A dissipative structure has the propriety to self-organize. By doing so, it diminishes its internal entropy by exporting it to the outside. It maximizes the entropy flow to the outside. In statistical mechanics, energy dissipation is called “entropy production.”
As soon as 1922, Alfred Lotka, famous for his work in population dynamics and energetics, hypothesized that natural selection fosters organisms that capture and dissipate the fastest and the most efficient energy (or produce the most entropy). Lotka also explained why nature created structures capable to memorize ever more information.
Since then, Claude Shannon, an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer became “the father of information theory.” He is the first to have linked entropy and information. Shannon developed information entropy as a measure of the uncertainty in a message. Entropy is thus a measure of our lack of information, our ignorance if you prefer. Energy and information are equivalent. Major consequences affect all of us.
First, when entropy increases, information diminishes, the past fades, and the future becomes more unpredictable.
Then, by dissipating energy, a system also modifies its environment. This is what Odrum confirmed later in 1955:
“During self-organization, systems designs develop and prevail that maximize power intake, energy transformation, and those uses that reinforce production and efficiency.”
Mankind develops its well-being by maximizing the speed with which it dissipates energy, memorizes information, modifies the environment, and adapts to these changes.
We self-organize and diminish our internal entropy by exchanging energy and information with the outside world.
6. Why Project Managers Must Go Ever Faster
These laws have a consequence on natural selection. Natural selection is a physical process that maximizes the flow of energy.
This clearly relates to project management in complex organizations. Project environments are equivalent to dissipative systems maximizing the speed of exchange of energy, information, and matter with their outside world.
What means “dissipating more energy” for a project? Has a project that produces the largest energy flow more chance to succeed? Is this the key reason why the project management community develops approaches ever more agile?
Some companies love “Skunk Works.” If this designation originated in secret aircraft projects at Lockheed Martin, an American firm of the defense industry, it is often found in reorganization projects or new product introduction projects that remain for some time isolated from the outside world. These projects look like thermos flasks. In such a closed system, any structure (all differences) progressively disappears. The liquid becomes lukewarm. Every move stops. There is an irremediable loss of information.
In reality, to be successful, projects must resemble open systems accepting to exchange energy and information with their outside environment.
An open system is in a thermodynamic unbalance. Ordered structures and movements appear. New information arises (and with its unpredictability). Entropy diminishes. The structures that appear within open systems self-organize by memorizing information on their environment. That allows them to maximize the production of free energy and thus to “survive.” And they doubtless do this by developing first a global brain based on all the brains of all the project stakeholders. This is achieved by interconnecting effectively this community of stakeholders and by favoring the development of project information. Traditional vertical approaches cannot compete anymore to deliver the same effectiveness.
7. Here is a Selection of Takeaways
- The universe incessantly strives to maximize the speed with which energy dissipates.
- Energy and information are equivalent.
- This principle applies to most projects.
- Successful projects resemble open systems that self-organize.
- They create new ordered structures, movements, and information.
- Information should freely flow within and outside the project environment.
- Your own takeaway… ?
To your continued success
Do you want to discuss this article?
Place your questions, comments, own case studies, or suggest improvements here.
Read also this article at Ken Martin’s site Kigospaces
“I found your book so eye-opener!”
Mariangela Perrone – Switzerland
“Great read! I strongly believe in the key role of PMOs.”
Michael Prettenhofer – Germany
“Excelente livro. Philippe é um grande colaborador da PMO Global Alliance. Recomendo!”
Americo Pinto – Brazil
 François Roddier, Thermodynamics of Evolution, An essay of thermo-bio-sociology, Parole Editions, 2012.
 Swenson, R. and Turvey, M.T. (1991). Thermodynamic reasons for perception-action cycles. Ecological Psychology, 3(4), 317-348. Translated and reprinted in Perspectives on Affordances, in M. Sasaki (ed.). Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1998 (in Japanese).
 Dewar, R.C., Maximum entropy production and the fluctuation theorem, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 (2005) L371-L381.
 Odum, H.T., The maximum power principle, 1995.
Creating and running a Project Management Office (PMO) that consistently delivers value in our VUCA world (i.e. Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, Ambiguous) is a challenge. Of course, many different schools of thought address this challenge. But they all do this with varying levels of success. But imagine now that you operate a PMO that is lean, agile, state-of-the-art, and that delivers a measurable contribution to your organization’s success.
You may find that this PMO shares several characteristics with hummingbirds.
I have already published several articles on the hummingbird, both here, on The Project Group blog, and on LinkedIn. All have been well received. So, it is my pleasure today to republish a slightly modified article.
The hummingbird is indeed the very symbol of what a lean, agile, and effective PMO is.
Here is a selection of 10 of these characteristics that a PMO may explore, study and learn.
But before getting to them, watch this beautiful video from National Geographic.
Figure 1: The hummingbird is a direct symbol of what an agile PMO is.
1-Hummingbirds Belong to a Variety of Species
Hummingbirds are small and agile birds from the Americas. They constitute the family Trochilidae. Hummingbirds fall into nine main clades, the Topazes, Hermits, Mangoes, Brilliants, Coquettes, Patagona, Mountain Gems, Bees, and Emeralds. They count between 325 and 340 species.
So are PMOs. PMOs can belong to several branches or clades (usually 3-7), from Project or Program Management Office to Portfolio Management Office. It can be an Enterprise Project Management Office or a Center of Excellence in Project Management. It may even be a Strategic Initiative Management Office. Yet, it may also be the individual running the Office: the PM Officer.
These branches count a large variety of situations defined by the domains, the level, the scope of control or the experience and capabilities they show. One size does not fit all. Surely, this diversity contributes to agility.
Figure 2: PMOs play all sorts of roles in an organization (illustration).
Identifying and counting all PMO individuals in the world is an impossible task. Just an example. Google gives 47,500,000 results for a search with “PMO” as a keyword.
One difference though between hummingbirds and PMOs is that PMOs are everywhere in the world and not only in the Americas. LinkedIn finds 260,000 PMOs in the US, and hundreds of thousands outside the Americas.
- Differentiate the PM Office and the PM Officer.
- Clarify what your organization calls a PM Officewith a family (PMO) and clades (branches) like Project MO, Program MO, Portfolio MO, Strategic Initiative MO, Transformation MO, PM Center of Excellence.
- Consider the huge variety of individuals serving as a PM Officer; clarify their mission, their capabilities, and their personal development needs.
2-Hummingbirds Are Among the Smallest of Birds
They are among the smallest of birds, most species measuring 7.5–13 cm (3–5 in) in length. Female hummingbirds tend to be larger, requiring more energy, with longer beaks that allow for more effective reach into crevices of tall flowers for nectar. Thus, females are better at foraging, acquiring flower nectar, and supporting the energy demands of their larger body size.
Figure 3: PMOs can be a decentralized community of lean local PM Offices and Officers.
Agile PMOs are generally very small too. Can you imagine a heavy PMO being agile like a hummingbird?
A large PM Office willing to be agile may imitate a flock of birds or small PM Offices and Officers. Figure 3 depicts an example. The most effective PMOs I have seen are made of only very few people.
In a very large worldwide initiative, only two people made the PMO. However, these two individuals built and animated a community of tens of decentralized lean PMOs. Each of them was well embedded in their local organization and highly dedicated, motivated, and professional.
- Create agility in your organization by preferring a swarm of small, distributed and
- diverse PMOs to a large monolithic PMO.
- Make these PMOs build connections, form an organization-wide community of practice, and share their diversity.
3-Hummingbirds Love Flowering Plants They Cross-Pollinate
Hummingbirds love nectar-bearing flowering plants. They depend on flower nectar to fuel their high metabolisms and hovering flight. Many plants pollinated by hummingbirds produce flowers in shades of red, orange, and bright pink.
Figure 4: Agile PMOs benefit from the crosspollination of many approaches
PMOs love great, diverse, and ambitious projects. There is nothing worse than a dull project for which the PMO has neither challenge to overcome nor great purpose to contribute.
Most PMOs are temporary. Once their assignment concludes with the end of a project, they move to another endeavor. A PMO going from an exciting project to another one cross-pollinates these projects.
At the same time, they study and learn a variety of project management approaches, from lean start-up to mega-project management or strategic initiative portfolio management. Their mindset is constantly open to the most adapted solutions.
They even master the hybridization of several different approaches during a same project. For example, they introduce lean start-up approaches upstream, agile approaches later, and waterfall approaches as soon as most uncertainties disappear.
- Make sure your PMO can understand and apply a variety of bodies of knowledge.
4-Hummingbirds Fly with Breathtaking Agility
The hummingbird has several adaptations that allow it to fly with breathtaking agility and precision. Of all the known species of birds, the hummingbird is perhaps one of the most iconic because of its unique ability to hover. They hover in mid-air at rapid wing-flapping rates, which vary from around 12 beats per second in the largest species, to more than 80 in some of the smallest. Therefore, they can fly straight, in reverse, upwards, downwards, and even upside down.
An agile PMO is also capable of flying straight, in reverse, upwards, downwards, and even upside down. Such a PMO can hover and support complex projects with a remarkable agility allowing it to navigate the most VUCA environments (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, Ambiguous).
They interact with stakeholders in every direction, vertically (up and down), laterally (with different functions, geographies, roles). They, like the Russian Sukhoi Pugachev’s Cobra maneuver, avoid opponent maneuvers and missiles.
Agile PMOs also study and learn the laws of physics. For example, they learn that a controlling system must be nimbler than the system it pretends to control. The management system they implement must meet this obligation.
They especially learn the laws of thermodynamics. For example, they learn that organizations are complex adaptive systems. As such, organizations dissipate their energy and information with a constantly increasing the speed.
So, they support their projects, programs or portfolios with a most open mindset and the largest possible exchanges of information from and to their outside world.
- Implement a management system that makes you faster than the system you need to control, and exchange information from and to the outside world as fast as possible.
5-Hummingbirds Hover for Very Long Periods of Time
Hummingbirds have also the ability to simply hover for very long periods of time. During flight, oxygen consumption per gram of muscle tissue in a hummingbird is about 10 times higher than that measured in elite human athletes. Hummingbirds are rare among vertebrates in their ability to rapidly make use of ingested sugars to fuel energetically expensive hovering flight.
Figure 5: Agile PMOs identify, manage, and resist project fatigue
Some projects last for a very long period (sometimes more than 10 years). Some meetings are very long too (several days). So, it is important that PMOs demonstrate the ability to “hover” for very long periods of time.
Agile PMOs can anticipate the project fatigue created by the change impact on themselves as well as on their stakeholders. For example, they pick up the ability to reorganize the project portfolio to reduce this fatigue.
Or they recognize this fatigue and propose to adapt the project management style. And they increase the comprehension for all stakeholders of what happens. This makes people feel more comfortable with the project.
- Your first goal as a PMO is to survive. This is the only way you can bring a project to success.
- Apply the same rule to your stakeholders and to your team members.
6-Hummingbirds Acquire Vocalizations through Imitation
Consisting of chirps, squeaks, whistles and buzzes, hummingbird songs originate from at least seven specialized nuclei in the forebrain. A genetic expression study has shown that these nuclei enable vocal learning (ability to acquire vocalizations through imitation), a rare trait known to occur in only two other groups of birds (parrots and songbirds) and a few groups of mammals (including humans, whales, dolphins and bats).
PMOs also imitate other professionals. They learn the human dynamics of their project stakeholders. These human dynamics comprise a variety of domains. Among them, you find the knowledge of languages, history, cultures, human behaviors, cognitive biases.
These PMOs use tools, soft or hard, that help them adjust their work to the particularities of the context.
Here are a few practical examples from top-notch PM Officers. They:
- Practice several foreign languages.
- Adapt their interaction style to the cultural traits of their stakeholders.
- Build relationships first where important.
- Focus on actions and results where and when appropriate.
- Use linguistic analysis to catch hidden characteristics of the initiatives, reports, or communication.
- A “hummingbird” PMO learns its stakeholders’ style and adjusts its attitude as required to make the interrelationship fruitful.
7-Hummingbirds Have A High Spatial Resolution in Lateral and Frontal Visual Fields
During evolution, hummingbirds have adapted to the navigational needs of visual processing while in rapid flight or hovering by development of an exceptionally dense array of retinal neurons allowing for increased spatial resolution in the lateral and frontal visual fields. The enlargement of the brain region responsible for visual processing indicates enhanced ability for perception and processing of fast-moving visual stimuli, which hummingbirds encounter during rapid forward flight, insect foraging, competitive interactions, and high-speed courtship. Hummingbirds can even see wavelengths into the near-ultraviolet.
Figure 6: Agile PMOs see things from above (illustration)
The more complex a project, the more VUCA an environment, the more information is important for a PMO.
Here is a practical example. A global-500 company wanted to focus its teams on customer-centricity. Figure 6 shows the mission-critical capabilities over the entire organization required to deliver successfully such a transformation. The PMO that built this graph, called Marimekko, was able to identify key gaps in some vital customer-facing functions as well as over-capabilities in less critical functions.
Complex systems are also highly sensitive to initial conditions. This phenomenon bears the name of “butterfly effect”. Early information gathered upstream is vital. Early business intelligence is key to avoiding big mistakes later. Yet, there is a limit to the amount of available information. Therefore, complex systems are also unpredictable to targets. This requires both getting the most precise understanding of how a system behaves and developing innovative strategies, for example based on options. The perception (reasoned or intuitive) of a PMO is also a key success factor. Finally, agile PMOs have “single versions of the truth” available 24×7.
- Getting access to information is vital. A PMO accessing a large pertinent amount of data gains a real competitive advantage.
8-Hummingbirds Keep Their Head Positions Stable in Turbulences
During turbulent airflow conditions created experimentally in a wind tunnel, hummingbirds exhibit stable head positions and orientation when they hover at a feeder. In natural settings full of highly complex background motion, hummingbirds can hover precisely in place by rapid coordination of vision with body position.
The agile PMO demonstrates the same vital capability to maintain the head above water. Turbulences strike the project. Uncertainty and instability shake the course of the project. Conversations with colleagues, during meetings, or with executives can be difficult. However, the agile PMO stays confident, calm, focused on the mission.
- No amount of data will ever guarantee the predictability of results. Therefore, the PMO must study and learn flexible and adaptive strategies.
9-Hummingbirds Can Enter Hibernation-Like States
To conserve energy when food is scarce, and at night when not foraging, hummingbirds can go into torpor, a state like hibernation, slowing metabolic rate to 1/15th of its normal rate.
PMOs may go through periods of desert. Projects may be missing, slow moving, or waiting for key decisions. They may work on an initiative that is stopped, temporarily or not.
Imagine that you support a construction project in a beautiful Italian town. Imagine also that when workers begin to dig the foundations, they find bones from ancient Rome. No doubt that the project will be stopped, and archeologists will take precedence over construction work.
It is time for the PMO to hibernate. The expert PMO understands time preference and knows to be patient now and impatient later.
- Do not fear loneliness, silence, or desert. These are all opportunities for resourcing, learning, introspecting, waiting for maturity, and at the end for preparing a better future.
10-Hummingbirds Have a Lifespan of 3 to 5 Years
Many hummingbirds die during their first year of life, especially in the vulnerable period between hatching and fledging, those that survive may occasionally live a decade or more. Among the better-known North American species, the average lifespan is probably 3 to 5 years.
This does not seem too different from PMOs’ lifespans.
First, let us differentiate between the lifespan of a PM Office and the lifespan of a PM Officer. PM Offices are mostly temporary when they support a project or a program. Conversely, they are built to last a long time (or to be permanent) when they deal with an organizational strategy, a portfolio of projects and programs, or a center of excellence.
PM Officers have a different attitude regarding time.
Some PMOs “die” very early. This is frequently the case when their hiring process is neglecting key characteristics, like their level of capabilities on each of the three dimensions of the Talent Triangle (technical, business, and leadership). But most of short lifespans happen when project leaders and PM Officers do not rapidly perform as a close-knit buddy system.
Other PM Officers last a few years. They start and finish with the project. But a key difference compared to hummingbirds is that PMOs have the privilege to find new lives every time one is gone.
Many PMOs have an increasingly exciting career they can manage with agility. They have opportunities to support ever-larger domains and endeavors (think of the PMOs in mega-projects or consider Enterprise PMOs). They master more and more state-of-the-art approaches to project management.
- Separate the lifespan of a PMO as an organization and the lifespan of a PMO as an individual. Adjust the former to the organizational needs and the latter to your personal development needs.
Conclusion – What Successful PMOs Can Learn from Hummingbirds
The hummingbird is a symbol of several key characteristics an agile PMO should demonstrate. A PMO is dedicated to a mission. Its characteristics only serve to fulfill this mission successfully.
If you had only three characteristics to focus on, these three would make it:
- Be lean, distributed, and work as a community
- Develop a very large visual field within and outside your domain
- Become stable in turbulences with advanced strategies
Of course, each PM Officer has his or her own preferences, based on who they are and in relation to the context in which they operate. What would be yours? Let me know by leaving a comment below.
To your continued success
Do you want to discuss this article?
Place your questions, comments, own case studies, or suggest improvements here.
You can read more on agile PMOs in Philippe Husser’s new book The High-Impact PMO – Why and How Agile Project Management Offices Deliver Value in a Complex World.
Thank you also to TPG The Project Group and Bettina von Staden who published recently my article on their blog.